Terms and Acronyms

Adjunct Therapies

Treatments that provide synergistic effects when combined with the standard treatment.

Adult Stem Cell

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found in stem cell niches throughout the body, which function to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues.


A term used to describe the amount of a nutraceutical or drug that reaches the blood circulation in its active form, and its duration in the body.

Cancer Initiating Stem Cell

Cancer initiating stem cells are cells that possess characteristics associated with normal stem cells, and are responsible for initiating and sustaining the disease.


In regards to cancer treatment, chemotherapy refers to antineoplastic drugs and the combination of these drugs into a cytotoxic standardized treatment regimen.

Clinical trial

Clinical trials are studies conducted to gather information about adverse drug reactions, therapeutic doses, and efficacy of agents or therapies in order to get FDA approval.


This refers to the spread of a cancer from one organ or part of the body to another non-adjacent organ or part of the body.


Nutraceuticals are food or food products that may or may not have any nutritional value, but provide a medical benefit in the prevention and treatment of disease.


Oncogenes are normal genes that become mutated or expressed at high levels in cancer.


This refers to the unique state of a dormant stem cell, where the cell is neither dividing nor preparing to divide, yet still has high metabolic rates.

Radiation Therapy

The use of ionizing radiation for medical purposes.


Absence of disease activity in patients with a chronic disease.

Standard Treatment

The treatment that is normally given to people with a specific medical condition.

Tumor Suppressor Gene

An anti-oncogene that normally protects cells from cancer and is typically mutated or deleted.